Grade 5 – The Pequot War


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Native Americans, Pequot War
Theme
The Role of Connecticut in U.S. History
Town
Griswold, Groton, Ledyard, North Stonington, Preston, Stonington
Related Search Terms
Pequot War, 17th century, Pre-colonial, Colonization, Indigenous People, Colonists
Social Studies Frameworks
Grade 5 – Early United States History
D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

How does colonization affect indigenous people?

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • What issues or cultural practices contributed to the conflict between indigenous peoples and European colonists in Connecticut?
  • What was the Pequot War about?
  • How do the primary sources left behind affect our knowledge or understanding of a conflict?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

The figure of the Indians' fort or palizado in New England and the manner of the destroying it by Captayne Underhill and Captayne Mason / RH, 1638 - Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division
The figure of the Indians’ fort or palizado in New England and the manner of the destroying it by Captayne Underhill and Captayne Mason / RH, 1638 – Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

The image shows the attack on the Pequot village at Mystic, Connecticut, by English soldiers and their allies, including the Narragansett. This was one of the major battles of the Pequot War (1636-1637). The image is included in John Underhill’s account of the Pequot War. John Underhill was second in command to John Mason, the commander of the Connecticut colonial forces during the Pequot War. This birds-eye view depicts the destruction of the village, which left over 400 Pequot men, women, and children dead.

D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Start by showing the image and asking students to share their observations about what they see. If students begin to make inferences, encourage them to use the visual evidence by asking, “What do you see that makes you say that?”

You may wish to guide the looking by suggesting students “read” the image from the inside/center out, ending with the words in the upper left corner.

After discussing students’ observations and guesses based on the evidence, ask students to develop their own questions based on the image. Have students discuss their questions, fine-tune them, and think about what other resources (primary or secondary) they could use to find answers.

Some questions for discussion might include:

  • Who created this image and why?
  • Who are the figures?
  • What are the structures?
  • What is going on?
  • From whose perspective is it drawn? What are the clues?
  • How might the image be different if it had been drawn from the Pequot perspective? Or the Narragansett perspective?
  • Where could we learn more?
D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS

After examination of the image and further research, have students consider the Pequot War from the perspective of a Pequot man, woman, or child; the perspective of an English soldier; or the perspective of a Narragansett man allied with the English. Presentations could take the form of a dramatic dialogue or skit, a letter written 20 years after the conflict, or an alternative illustration of the events in Mystic.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Things to DO
Websites to VISIT
Articles to READ

Grade 3 – Hartford: Then and Now

Map of Pioneer Hartford produced in 1927

by Laura Krenicki
William J. Johnston Middle School, Colchester


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Environment, Exploration and Discovery
Theme
Influence of Geography on the Social, Political, and Economic Development of CT Towns and the State
Town
Hartford, Statewide
Related Search Terms
Colonial, Hartford, Map, Pequot, Pioneer, Geography, Local History
Social Studies Frameworks
Grade 3 – Connecticut & Local History
D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

In what ways has Hartford, Connecticut, changed and/or stayed the same over time? 

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • How were local landmarks and neighborhoods named?
  • Why were specific individuals in your community honored through monuments or memorials, and how did they affect the history of your town, state, and country?
  • What historical events occurred in your town/city?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson (click on map for larger image).

The Map of Pioneer Hartford: Founded 1636, Incorporated 1784, Showing Early Landmarks and the Locations of Historical Events, ca. 1927 by James and Ruth Goldie - Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division
“The Map of Pioneer Hartford: Founded 1636, Incorporated 1784, Showing Early Landmarks and the Locations of Historical Events”, ca. 1927 by James and Ruth Goldie – Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division

The Map of Pioneer Hartford

Hartford, named after the English town of Hertford, was established in 1636. Though Rev. Thomas Hooker is credited with starting the English colony, there was already a Dutch settlement and Native American settlements in the same region. In fact, the state name Connecticut originates from the Mohegan word quonehtacut, meaning “place of long tidal river,” which runs alongside Hartford. This colonial map of Hartford shows how different cartographers (map makers) view space and place. Here, you’ll notice there are few streets, but there are landmarks and family names.

"Hartford Settlement, 1636" map created from two separate maps, originally published in The Colonial History of Hartford by Rev. William DeLoss Love, 1811, on the website Kenyon Street: Hartford's West End.
“Hartford Settlement, 1636” map created from two separate maps, originally published in The Colonial History of Hartford by Rev. William DeLoss Love, 1811, on the website Kenyon Street: Hartford’s West End.

Hartford Settlement, 1636

There are several Native American references on the map. Can your students spot them all? Several groups of Native Peoples lived in the Hartford area, and they have a strong cultural heritage in our state (For more info: Pequot Museum). In fact, many Native Peoples died when Europeans settled in the area because of exposure to new diseases. Using the CDC.gov website, have students find areas of the world requiring immunizations for travelers. Why are immunizations important?

University of Connecticut's, Map and Geographic Information Center - Hartford, CT Historical Places Map Mash-up
University of Connecticut’s, Map and Geographic Information Center – Hartford, CT: Historical Places Map Mash-up

Mash-up map

Over time, more maps were made of Hartford and more details were added as the community grew larger. In the upper left corner of the map is a drop-down menu. Choose one of the maps in the drop-down menu to compare to the map listed above. What questions do you have about the two maps? For more information, you may wish to check out this website: Map of the Week! #3 Hartford in 1640 and 1893

D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Have students notice how the map is oriented.

  • Which way is north?
  • How can they tell?
  • Which way does the Connecticut River flow?

The founding of Hartford was dependent on the Connecticut River.

  • Why was the river so important then?
  • How is it important to Hartford now?

For further consideration:

  • How important is scale on a map?
  • If they were to use this Pioneer Map of Hartford, how close would things seem?
  • How might this be misleading if students were going to walk from Soldier’s Field to West Field?
  • How did these places get their names?
D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS

Have students create a personal map from their house to your school. Have students ask their families to see how their community has changed over time.

As a class discussion, consider these questions:

  • What things would you think are important to include in your map?
  • What details or landmarks would you include in your map and what would you leave off?
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Places to GO
Things to DO
Websites to VISIT
Articles to READ