Grade 8 – The Inventions of A. A. Hotchkiss And Sons

by Rosemary Davis
Sharon Historical Society, Sharon


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Business & Industry, Invention & Technology, Civil War
Theme
The Role of Connecticut in U.S. History
Town
Sharon, Statewide
Related Search Terms
Manufacturing, Industrialization, Hardware, Firearms, Munitions, Projectiles
Social Studies Frameworks
Grade 8 – United States History
D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

How did Sharon, Connecticut, manufacturers A. A. Hotchkiss and Sons contribute to major innovations in U.S. history?

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • What inventions patented by the Hotchkiss family were used throughout the United States?
  • What industries existed in Sharon, Connecticut, that made it a good place to manufacturer hardware such as home and farm items?
  • What major war in U.S. history used a Hotchkiss invention and led to the Hotchkiss factory moving out of Sharon, Connecticut? Why was it necessary to leave Sharon?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

Items made in Asahel Hotchkiss' factory east of Mudge Pond brook. Among the included are currycombs, a horse bit, hasp, mowing machine teeth, nails, bolts, nuts and an ox bow pin. How many can you identify? - Sharon Historical Society
Items made in Asahel Hotchkiss’ factory east of Mudge Pond brook. Among the included are currycombs, a horse bit, hasp, mowing machine teeth, nails, bolts, nuts and an ox bow pin. How many can you identify? – Sharon Historical Society
Classic wrench invented by Andrew Hotchkiss.  Patented under # 8922 Andrew's design has served as the prototype for numerous adjustable wrenches - Sharon Historical Society
Classic wrench invented by Andrew Hotchkiss. Patented under # 8922 Andrew’s design has served as the prototype for numerous adjustable wrenches. – Sharon Historical Society
Hotchkiss exploding shells patented by Andrew Hotchkiss.   - Sharon Historical Society
Hotchkiss exploding shells patented by Andrew Hotchkiss. – Sharon Historical Society
D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Students can examine the Hotchkiss inventions in the context of more in-depth questions, such as:

  • Is America a land of political, economic, and social opportunity?
  • What was the significance of Connecticut’s contribution to America’s story?

Students can also use the inventions and the larger story of the Hotchkiss company moving from Sharon to analyze reasons for economic growth in Connecticut in the 19th century and ways that Connecticut contributed to the growth and expansion of the nation. Evaluate the history of individual cities and towns in the 19th century and analyze reasons for economic and/or social change in individual towns during this period.

D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS

Students could engage in a debate about the role of innovation in war time. Students could also create a presentation examining the Hotchkiss inventions from geographical (Why was Sharon a good place for innovation?), social (How did farm and home hardware improve everyday life?), and political (What was the contribution of the Hotchkiss shell to the Civil War?) perspectives.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Things to DO
Websites to VISIT
Articles to READ

Grade 8 – The Iron Industry of Northwest Connecticut

by Rosemary Davis
Sharon Historical Society, Sharon


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Business & Industry, Invention & Technology
Theme
The Impact of Geography on History
Town
Salisbury, Sharon, Statewide
Related Search Terms
Geography, Industrialization, Iron, Furnace, Ore, Pig Iron
Social Studies Frameworks
Grade 8 – United States History
D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

Would there have been a thriving iron industry in Connecticut without the geological and geographical advantages of the northwest corner?

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • Why was the geography of the northwest corner critical to the success of Connecticut’s iron industry?
  • Why did Connecticut’s iron industry fail?
  • What might have happened to the development of the northwest corner of Connecticut had the men that owned the iron furnaces decided to become steel producers?
  • How did the geographical location of Connecticut’s iron industry affect the development of transportation routes into and out of the state?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

Men working as molders in Sharon Valley. Note the unusual variety of tools used for the compacting of special sand for casting the iron. Note: the children are not just visiting they are part of the work force. - Sharon Historical Society
Men working as molders in Sharon Valley. Note the unusual variety of tools used for the compacting of special sand for casting the iron. Note: the children are not just visiting they are part of the work force. – Sharon Historical Society
The Sharon Valley Iron Company furnace in 1875. Note the stacks of pig iron in the foreground and beyond the tree to the left. To the upper right stand the charcoal sheds. At the same level is the elongated casting shed running into the main building to the top of the thirty-four-foot-high blast furnace.  Above the unseen furnace is the top house extending sixty-eight feet above ground.  To the far left is the blast house with an overshot waterwheel powering pumping tubs through the visible pipe to the top house to heat the blast. The casting shed, center front, contains the sand beds where the white-hot iron formed into pigs and cooled. - Salisbury Association
The Sharon Valley Iron Company furnace in 1875. Note the stacks of pig iron in the foreground and beyond the tree to the left. To the upper right stand the charcoal sheds. At the same level is the elongated casting shed running into the main building to the top of the thirty-four foot high blast furnace. Above the unseen furnace is the top house extending sixty-eight feet above ground. To the far left is the blast house with an overshot waterwheel powering pumping tubs through the visible pipe to the top house to heat the blast. The casting shed, center front, contains the sand beds where the white-hot iron formed into pigs and cooled. – Salisbury Association
Account Book, Coal, Sharon Valley Iron Co., 1887-1892. - Sharon Historical Society
Account Book, Coal, Sharon Valley Iron Co., 1887-1892. – Sharon Historical Society
D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Using the above primary and secondary source materials, the book, Echoes of Iron in Connecticut’s Northwest Corner, and accompanying video, “Visions of Iron,” students will plot out the geographical locations of materials critical to the success of Connecticut’s iron industry: rivers, forests for the production of charcoal, lime deposits, and iron ore deposits. Once the data has been plotted, students will develop hypotheses as to why the iron industry failed, and what actions could have been taken to foster its long-term success. Using these arguments, students will determine how the character of the northwest corner may have been changed as a result.

D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS
  • Plan a mock town meeting on one of the following topics: the possibility of building more iron furnaces across the region; the conversion of cold blast furnaces to hot blast furnaces; bringing major railroad lines closer to the furnace locations; etc.
  • Using online resources develop an interactive map.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Things to DO
Websites to VISIT
Articles to READ