HS – Joining the War Effort, One Peach Pit at a Time

Peach Pit Hogshead

TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
World War I
Theme
The Role of Connecticut in U.S. History
Town
Hartford, Windham, Statewide
Related Search Terms
World War One, WWI, First World War, Great War, Home Front, Gas Masks, Peach Pits, Women, Work, Industry, Hartford Rubber Works, How Connecticut Fought the War, How Lives Changed
Social Studies Frameworks
High School – United States History

Historical Background
World War I was the first conflict to see large-scale use of chemical weapons. Poison gases, such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard gas caused blisters on the skin, blindness, lung damage, asphyxiation, and other injuries. The earliest German gas attack (at Ypres, France, in 1915) took the Allied forces by surprise, and soon afterwards the British and French started developing their own chemical weapons and protective gas masks. The United States ramped up its gas mask production in 1917–1918. The Red Cross spearheaded a campaign to collect fruit pits and nut shells for making gas mask filters. Several factories in Connecticut converted to gas mask production in order to meet the army’s needs. Hundreds of women in the state were recruited for this work.

D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

How does an entire society participate in war?

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • To what extent were women essential to the workforce during World War I?
  • How did the U.S. government and the Red Cross mobilize people to participate in the war effort?
  • In what ways did Connecticut industry influence World War I?
  • How did Connecticut’s existing industrial infrastructure and workforce adapt to serve the war effort?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

Peach Pit Hogshead
Peach pit hogshead outside Sage Allen & Company department store, Hartford, Connecticut ca. 1917-1919 – Connecticut State Library, Dudley Photograph Collection

 

Peach Pit Depository
Murray’s Boston Store (Willimantic) advertisement. Norwich Bulletin, Norwich, Connecticut, September 9, 1918 – Library of Congress, Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers
page Download the article “Straw Hats Must Yield to Gas Masks: United States Rubber Buys Old Straw Hat Works at MilfordThe Hartford Courant, July 8, 1917, pg. 5
page Download the article “Local Plant Needs Women to Work on Gas Mask Rush Order.” The Hartford Courant, June 28, 1918, pg. 9
page Download the article “Women Answer Call For Gas Mask Work. More than 300 sign up at Hartford Rubber WorksThe Hartford Courant, June 30, 1918, pg. 6
D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY
  1. Start by displaying the “Peach pit hogshead” image, preferably full screen, without the title/caption.
  2. Ask students to look closely at the image and share what they see. Encourage them to back up their comments with specific visual evidence. Ask, “What do you see that makes you say that?” You may want to use the Library of Congress Analyzing Photographs & Prints process to guide students’ looking. Assemble a list of questions that arise from the students’ examination of the photograph.
  3. Next, display or distribute the advertisement for Murray’s Boston Store in Willimantic. Once students have had a chance to read the advertisement, make a list of the new pieces of information students have gathered. See which questions from the initial list have now been answered, and make a list of additional/new questions.
  4. Select one, two, or all three of the short newspaper articles to share with students. You may wish to assign different articles to different students or have everyone read all of the articles. Ask students to:
    OBSERVE: What information can they gather from the articles?
    REFLECT: What do they think based on what they have read?
    QUESTION: What does this article make them wonder?
  5. You may want to use the Library of Congress Primary Source Analysis worksheet to help students organize and record their thoughts.
  6. Look back at the students’ list of questions for inquiry and/or at the suggested supporting questions. Discuss to what extent these primary sources help uncover answers to those questions or to the larger compelling question. Discuss additional questions the students have and sources or avenues for further inquiry.

NOTE: To see original film footage of gas mask production in 1918—from the peach pits to the final product—don’t miss this great source from the National Archives. Click on the hyperlink below and then on the film icon to start the video.

Silent video: Manufacture of Gas Masks, 1918, silent video (6:21). National Archives.

D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS
  • Drawing on their examination of the primary sources in this activity and other related sources (see below for some suggestions), students will design a World War I-style poster promoting the collection of fruit pits for the war effort OR encouraging women to take on war work in Connecticut factories. Need inspiration? Check out the Library of Congress’s collection of World War I Posters.
  • Students will research other Connecticut industries during World War I and compare them to the production of gas masks at the time. Who was employed? Where were the factories located? How did the products contribute to the war effort? Did the factories make something different before the war?
  • Students will draft a letter to a state legislator or to the editor of their local newspaper advocating why—based on the study of history and the examination of primary sources—there should be a monument that recognizes the war efforts of Connecticut residents on the home front during World War I.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Places to GO
Things to DO
Articles & Boks to READ

This TeachITCT.org activity is sponsored in part by the Library of Congress Teaching with Primary Sources Eastern Region Program, coordinated by Waynesburg University.

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HS – Over There: A Connecticut Soldier in France

Letter from Charles F. Coughlin to his mother, November 16, 1917

TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
World War I
Theme
The Role of Connecticut in U.S. History
Town
Hartford, Statewide
Related Search Terms
World War One, WWI, First World War, Great War, Soldiers,  Enlistment, France, American Expeditionary Forces, 102nd Infantry, Hun, Doughboy, Yankee Division, How Connecticut Fought the War
Social Studies Frameworks
High School – United States History

Historical Background
Charles F. Coughlin of Hartford worked for Aetna Insurance Company prior to the outbreak of World War I. During the war he served in the 102nd Infantry, a national guard unit that made up part of the 26th Division (known as the “Yankee Division”) of the American Expeditionary Forces in France. Coughlin enlisted as a private on June 24, 1917, at the age of twenty-six and was later promoted to corporal and then sergeant. His letters home to his mother bring to life some of the conditions in France and the soldier’s experience of war. In the fall of 1918, the 102nd Infantry was involved in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Coughlin was wounded in battle on October 23, 1918, and died on October 27, just weeks before the armistice. Letters to and from Charles’s father, Edward E. Coughlin, regarding the details of his son’s death, burial, and personal effects reveal something of the level of confusion and chaos that existed at the end of the war. In addition to the materials at the Connecticut Historical Society included in this activity, we know about Coughlin’s background and service from the military questionnaire completed by his father after the war, which is held by the Connecticut State Library.

D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

How do you measure the cost of war?

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • How did Connecticut soldiers serving in Europe experience the war?
  • What personal hardships did soldiers endure?
  • What observations did soldiers make about France and the experiences of the French people during the war?
  • Did soldiers see a value to their service in France while the war was going on?
  • What struggles did the families of fallen soldiers face in trying to gather information about the death of their loved ones?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

Part 1: Letters from Charles F. Coughlin to his mother

Source #1

Letter from Charles F. Coughlin to his mother, November 16, 1917
Detail from page one of a letter from Charles F. Coughlin to his mother, November 16, 1917. Click the image above to see all four pages in a pdf – Connecticut Historical Society, Matthew E. and Charles F. Coughlin World War I correspondence and memorabilia, 1879-1921, 66232
page  Download a transcription of the letter dated November 16, 1917.
page Download a pdf of the entire four page letter, dated November 16, 1917.
Source #2

Letter from Charles F. Coughlin to his mother, September 19, 1918
Detail of page one of a letter from Charles F. Coughlin to his mother, September 19, 1918. Click the image above to see all ten pages in a pdf – Connecticut Historical Society, Matthew E. and Charles F. Coughlin World War I correspondence and memorabilia, 1879-1921, 66232
page  Download a transcription of the letter dated September 19, 1918.
page Download a pdf of the entire ten page letter, dated September 19, 1918.
Source #3

Letter from Charles F. Coughlin to his mother, October 12, 1918
Detail of page one of a letter from Charles F. Coughlin to his mother, October 12, 1918. Click the image above to see all eight pages in a pdf – Connecticut Historical Society, Matthew E. and Charles F. Coughlin World War I correspondence and memorabilia, 1879-1921, 66232
page  Download a transcription of the letter dated October 12, 1918.
page Download a pdf of the entire eight page letter, dated October 12, 1918.
Part 2: Letters to and from Charles’s father, Edward E. Coughlin

Source #4

Letter from Edward E. Coughlin to Miss A.B. Sands, Executive Secretary, Connecticut State Council of Defense, January 8, 1919
Detail of letter from Edward E. Coughlin to Miss A.B. Sands, Executive Secretary, Connecticut State Council of Defense, January 8, 1919 – Connecticut Historical Society, Matthew E. and Charles F. Coughlin World War I correspondence and memorabilia, 1879-1921, 66232
Source #5

 letter from W.R. Castle, Director, Bureau of Communications, American Red Cross to Edward E. Coughlin, January 15, 1919
Detail of the letter from W.R. Castle, Director, Bureau of Communications, American Red Cross to Edward E. Coughlin, January 15, 1919 – Connecticut Historical Society, Matthew E. and Charles F. Coughlin World War I correspondence and memorabilia, 1879-1921, 66232
Source #6

 Letter from Edward E. Coughlin to J. L. Barty, Auditor, War Department, June 28, 1920
Detail of Letter from Edward E. Coughlin to J. L. Barty, Auditor, War Department, June 28, 1920 – Connecticut Historical Society, Matthew E. and Charles F. Coughlin World War I correspondence and memorabilia, 1879-1921, 66232
Source # 7

Letter from J. F. Butler, Graves Registration Service, War Department, February 11, 1921
Detail of letter from J. F. Butler, Graves Registration Service, War Department, February 11, 1921 – Connecticut Historical Society, Matthew E. and Charles F. Coughlin World War I correspondence and memorabilia, 1879-1921, 66232
D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY
  1.  Introduce the compelling question and discuss possible supporting questions to guide the inquiry. These may include those suggested above, others generated by students, or both. Note that this compelling question could guide a series of inquiries using primary sources beyond those included in the toolkit for this activity.
  2. Present Charles F. Coughlin’s background, although you may wish to withhold the information about his death until later in the activity.
  3. Working individually or in pairs, students will examine the letters written by Charles F. Coughlin in 1917-1918, using SOAPSTone analysis, the Library of Congress Analyzing Primary Sources process (PDF – worksheet), or another method of your choice. Students may look at all three letters or be assigned different letters to examine and share with their classmates.
    • What can students KNOW from each source? What is the evidence?
    • What can they GUESS or infer? Based on what?
    • What does each source make them WONDER?
  4. Revisit the supporting questions and add new student-generated questions to the list for further inquiry.
  5. Share the details of Coughlin’s death, if you have not already, and distribute the second set of letters—those to and from Charles’s father, Edward E. Coughlin.
  6. Students may look at all four letters, or students may be assigned different letters to examine using the same process as above and then share with classmates.
  7. Revisit the supporting and compelling questions and discuss what further inquiries students might make in order to come to a more complete, informed response to the compelling question.
D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS
  • Students will conduct research and identify additional World War I primary sources to help them respond to the compelling question. These might be photographs, posters, letters, diaries, or government publications. Students will compare the information gathered from these sources to that found in the Coughlin materials. To get started, try some of the “Additional Resources” listed below.
  • Students will conduct a fundraiser or collect donations to support an organization serving veterans in your area.
  • Students will research the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs —its history, role, and services—and then find recent newspaper articles online discussing current issues related to the VA. Students will write a letter to the editor in response to one of these, making specific reference to historic events.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Places to GO
Things to DO
Articles & Books to READ

This TeachITCT.org activity is sponsored in part by the Library of Congress Teaching with Primary Sources Eastern Region Program, coordinated by Waynesburg University.

HS – Connecticut Women and the Women’s Suffrage Movement

Suffragists

TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Social Movements, Women
Theme
The Struggle for Freedom, Equality, and Social Justice
Town
Hartford, Norwalk, Statewide
Related Search Terms
Women’s Rights, Suffrage, Isabella Beecher Hooker, Voting, Reform Movements, Politics, Anti-Suffrage Movement, 19th Amendment
Social Studies Frameworks
High School – United States History

Historical Background
The National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) argued that together the Fourteenth Amendment and Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution actually guaranteed women the right to vote, but the idea was rejected by the Supreme Court in the 1870s, leading to the push for an all new amendment securing women’s right to vote. The proposed Nineteenth Amendment passed the House on May 21, 1919, and the Senate on June 4, 1919. Both Connecticut senators voted against the amendment. Thirty-six state legislatures needed to ratify the amendment; the last of these did so August 18, 1920. Connecticut did not ratify the legislation until September 14, 1920, after the Nineteenth Amendment had already gone into effect.

D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

How have American concepts of freedom and equality changed since the 1870s?

How might the changes be perceived differently by different segments of the population?

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • Who had the right to vote in the United States in 1870?
  • What strategies or arguments did supporters of women’s suffrage use to win the right to vote?
  • Are the voting rights of traditionally under-represented groups protected in contemporary America?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

Declaration and pledge of the women of the United States
“Declaration and pledge of the women of the United States concerning their right to, and their use of the elective franchise.” Isabella Beecher Hooker, 1871 – Connecticut Historical Society

In 1871 Isabella Beecher Hooker, an advocate for women’s rights from Hartford, Connecticut, organized the convention of the National Woman Suffrage Association in Washington D.C. This document was written and signed the same year.

page

 

Download a transcription of the document – pdf

 

You may wish to add one or more of the following photographs to your inquiry investigation:

Arrest of White House pickets
Arrest of White House pickets Catherine Flanagan of Hartford, Connecticut (left), and Madeleine Watson of Chicago (right), August 1917 – Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Records of the National Woman’s Party

 

helenaweed_loc275034r
Helena Hill Weed, Norwalk, Conn. Serving 3 day sentence in D.C. prison for carrying banner, “Governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed,” 1917 – Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Records of the National Woman’s Party

 

Party members picketing the Republican convention
Party members picketing the Republican convention, Chicago, June 1920 – Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division
D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Using SOAPSTone analysis, the Library of Congress Analyzing Primary Sources process, or another method of your choice, have students investigate the “Declaration and pledge of the women of the United States concerning their right to, and their use of the elective franchise.”

  • Who created this document?
  • Who was the intended audience?
  • When and where was it created?
  • What was going on in the country at the time?
  • What was the context?
  • What is the subject matter?
  • Which sentences or phrases particularly stand out?
  • What arguments are being made?
  • What does this document make you wonder?

Discuss the questions raised by the document and help students shape them into stronger questions to guide further inquiry. Discuss what sources (both primary and secondary) might help students learn more.

You may then choose to introduce one or more of the later photographs listed above into your inquiry, following investigation of the document. Use a similar process of OBSERVING, REFLECTING, and QUESTIONING to guide students’ exploration and analysis (Download Library of Congress teacher guide – PDF or student worksheet – PDF).

Together the document and photographs can help students develop a richer response to the supporting question above (“What strategies or arguments did supporters of women’s suffrage use to win the right to vote?”), as well as to the compelling question.

D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS

1) Students will use historic Connecticut newspapers available through the Connecticut State Library Digital Collection or Chronicling America, as well as other primary-source materials found online, to learn more about the arguments posed by both the suffrage and anti-suffrage movements in the early 1900s and the reaction to these arguments in the media. Students will then imagine themselves in 1919 and write a letter to the editor of one of the Connecticut newspapers advocating a position based on evidence gleaned from various primary sources of the time.

Additional sets of primary sources relating to national women’s suffrage can be found at:

2) Students will research contemporary voter registration and voter turnout data and create a video, billboard design, or social media campaign encouraging a target audience (which they will identify) to register and vote.

Here are a few online resources that are available:

 

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Places to GO
Things to DO

Grade 5 – Mapping the New World: Dutch Maps of the Colonies


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Environment, Exploration and Discovery, Native Americans
Theme
The Impact of Geography on History
Town
Guilford, Hartford, Watertown, Statewide
Related Search Terms
Colonist, Colonization, Colony, Explorers, Geography, Natural Resources, Indigenous People, Dutch, Map
Social Studies Frameworks
Grade 5 – Early United States History

Historical Background
In 1614 Dutch explorer Adriaen Block sailed along the Connecticut coast and up the Versche (Fresh) River—the Dutch name for the Connecticut River—as far as what is now Hartford. In 1633 the Dutch established a fortified trading post there. It was called the Huys de Hope—the House of Hope. For decades there was conflict between the Dutch in New Netherland and the English who came to settle in the same area. In 1650, the Dutch finally gave up their lands in Connecticut to the English.

D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

How did the physical geography of New England affect how the colonies developed? 

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • What resources were available in the different colonies and how were those resources used?
  • How did the colonists’ use of natural resources and establishment of permanent settlements affect the indigenous people of the region?
  • Why were the New England colonies focused on trade?
  • In what ways, and for whom, was America a land of opportunity during the 1600s?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

Willem Blaeu (Dutch), Nova Belgica et Anglia Nova, 1635 - This map is held in the collections of the Connecticut Historical Society and the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library
Willem Blaeu (Dutch), Nova Belgica et Anglia Nova, 1635 – This map is held in the collections of the Connecticut Historical Society and the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library

This map was based on a map drawn by Adriaen Block. It is oriented with west at the top. The map shows “Nieu Pleimouth” (Plymouth) and the Noord (North) Rivier (today called the Hudson), as well as the Versche (Fresh) River. It also includes images of native animals (probably never seen in real life by the artist), examples of Native American canoes and fortified villages, and European-style sailing ships.

Novi Belgii Novæque Angliæ
Nicolaes Visscher (Dutch), Novi Belgii Novæque Angliæ, 1685 – Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division

This later map features some of the same pictures and details as Blaeu’s map. It also includes the Fort de Goede Hoop (another name for the House of Hope) and some English settlements, such as Herfort (Hartford), Gilfort (Guilford), and Watertuyn (Watertown).

D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Using the Library of Congress’s Primary Source Analysis process, give students time to examine the first of the two maps, and ask them to OBSERVE, REFLECT, and QUESTION.

  1. Observe: Describe what you see. What do you notice first? What information does the map provide? What geographic elements are included? Which way is north/south/east/west, and how do you know? What places are shown on the map? Are there words on the map? Pictures? What are they?
  2. Reflect: Why do you think this map was made? What do you think was important to the people who made this map? Does the map give us any clues about the time in which it was made?
  3. Question: What does this map make you wonder?

Repeat with the later map and have students compare and contrast.

You may then choose to address some of the supporting questions (above) or focus on the questions that students have developed as part of their inquiry.

D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS
  1. Using evidence from the historic maps, as well as additional information gathered through readings and classroom discussions, students will make their own map of Connecticut showing the natural resources that attracted European colonists to the area. Start with a blank outline map like this one. Have students draw in major rivers and hilly regions, and then add simple images for fish/shellfish, woods/timber, beavers (for fur), other native animals, farmland, etc. in appropriate areas of the map.
  2. Using evidence from the historic maps, as well as additional information gathered through readings and classroom discussions, students will imagine that they are sailors on Adriaen Block’s ship, the Onrust, during its exploration of the Connecticut coast and the Fresh (Connecticut) River. They will write fictionalized letters home to a loved one in Amsterdam describing their experiences and observations.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Places to GO
Things to DO
Websites to VISIT
Articles to READ

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Grade 3 – Exploring Communities: Using Historic Maps to Learn about the Past


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Architecture, Environment, The State
Theme
Using Evidence to Learn About the Past
Town
Bridgeport, Canton, Danbury, East Haddam, Hartford, Killingly, Madison, New Haven, New London, NorwichThomaston, Vernon, Statewide
Related Search Terms
Map, Geography, Communities, Local History, Architecture, Landmarks, Insurance
Social Studies Frameworks
Grade 3 – Connecticut & Local History
D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

Why do our communities look the way they do today?

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS

In what ways has our community’s past shaped how it looks today?

How has geography affected our community over time?

How have science, technology, and innovation affected communities?

D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

An example of a Sanborn map titled Insurance maps of Danbury, Fairfield County, Connecticut by the Sanborn Map Company, 1904 -
An example of a Sanborn map titled Insurance maps of Danbury, Fairfield County, Connecticut by the Sanborn Map Company, 1904 – Yale University, Sterling Memorial Library, Connecticut Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps

Use the Yale University Library website–Connecticut Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps— to select and download a Sanborn fire insurance map to fit your teaching goals (you can look at the maps in your browser, but downloading the high-quality PDFs will enable students to make out more details).

You may choose just one map from your town or a nearby town, if you wish to focus on your own community, or select a few maps to show different types of environments—large cities, medium-sized towns, or smaller towns—if your focus is on urban, suburban, and rural communities. Note that many (but not all) Connecticut towns are represented in Sanborn maps. Here are a few samples from around the state:

Sanborn fire insurance maps were first published in 1867 to show how great a risk of fire there was in any town or city. The maps include all of the buildings in town, colored-coded to show what materials were used to build them (mostly “frame”/wood, brick, or stone). The maps also include important public buildings (government buildings, theaters, churches, schools, etc.), street names, and additional information. For larger cities, the maps take up several pages, like an atlas. For some communities, they are the most detailed maps available from the late 1800s to early 1900s. They are a great source of information about the past for historians–young and old!

D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Using the Library of Congress’s Primary Source Analysis process, give students time to examine each of the maps you have selected, and ask them to OBSERVE, REFLECT, and QUESTION. For larger towns, you may want to start with the “title page” and then also look at a downtown detail page and one from farther outside the city center.

  1.  Observe: What do you notice first? What information does the map provide? What geographic elements are included? Which way is north/south/east/west and how do you know? Are there words on the map?
  2. Reflect: What do you think was important to the people who made this map? Does the map give us any clues about the time in which it was made? If you are familiar with this town today, what is the same and what is different? Or how is the town shown in this map similar to or different from your own?
  3. Question: What does this map make you wonder?
D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS
  1. Imagining they are cartographers/map-makers, students will think about their own town and develop a list of all of the special places (public buildings, landmarks, public spaces, etc.) that should be included in a new map of town.
  2. Students will try their hand at making a map using rulers and graph paper. Making a map of the classroom is an easy project to start with; if your room has floor tiles, students can use those to mark out the dimensions on the graph paper.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Places to GO
Things to DO
Articles & Books to READ

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HS – Free Speech and Seditious Speech on the CT World War I Home Front

Waterburian Held for Reviling Flag; Another Tries to Kill Soldier

by Christine Gauvreau, Project Coordinator, Connecticut Digital Newspaper Project
Connecticut State Library


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
World War I
Theme
The Role of Connecticut in U.S. History
Town
Bridgeport, Hartford, Waterbury, Statewide
Related Search Terms
Protest, Labor, Patriotism, Preparedness, Pacifism, Neutrality, Free Speech, Seditious Speech, Anarchism, Deportation, Espionage, World War One, The Great War
Social Studies Frameworks
High School – United States History
D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

Does free speech exist in a time of war?

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • What kinds of “speech” were limited during WWI?
  • Why was free speech restricted?
  • What were the possible penalties for those who violated the regulations?
  • How did different people respond to the limitation on speech at the time?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

Extra! Police Take Notice
Extra! Police Take Notice” [ad for film], Bridgeport Times and Evening Farmer, April 23, 1918 – Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Library of Congress
image Download an image of the article “Extra! Police Take Notice” Bridgeport Times and Evening Farmer, April 23, 1918, or click on the image above to link to the article.
page Download a pdf of the entire page including the article, “Extra! Police Take Notice” Bridgeport Times and Evening Farmer, April 23, 1918, or click on the image above to link to the article.
Waterburian Held for Reviling Flag; Another Tries to Kill Soldier
“Waterburian Held for Reviling Flag; Another Tries to Kill Soldier,” Bridgeport Evening Farmer, April 7, 1917 – Library of Congress, Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers
image Download an image of the article “Waterburian Held for Reviling Flag; Another Tries to Kill Soldier,” Bridgeport Evening Farmer, April 7, 1917, or click on the image above to link to the article.
page Download a pdf of the entire page including the article “Waterburian Held for Reviling Flag; Another Tries to Kill Soldier,” Bridgeport Evening Farmer, April 7, 1917, or click on the image above to link to the article.

 

Hartford Police Arrest Pacifists
Detail of the article, “Hartford Police Arrest Pacifists,” Norwich Bulletin, September 17, 1917. Click on the image to read the entire article.  – Library of Congress, Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers
image Download an image of the article “Hartford Police Arrest Pacifists,” Norwich Bulletin, September 17, 1917, or click on the image above to link to the article.
page Download a pdf of the entire page including the article “Hartford Police Arrest Pacifists,” Norwich Bulletin, September 17, 1917, or click on the image above to link to the article.
Street Meeting Speakers Get Arrest They Were Looking For
Detail of the article “Street Meeting Speakers Get Arrest They Were Looking For,” Norwich Bulletin, October 13, 1920. Click on the image to read the entire article. – Library of Congress, Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers
image Download an image of the article “Street Meeting Speakers Get Arrest They Were Looking For,” Norwich Bulletin, October 13, 1920, or click on the image above to link to the article.
page Download a pdf of the entire page including the article “Street Meeting Speakers Get Arrest They Were Looking For,” Norwich Bulletin, October 13, 1920, or click on the image above to link to the article.

Speech considered anti-war or anti-American was regulated on the home front during the World War I era. Violations led to arrests and convictions. Pacifists, socialists, and immigrant workers were particularly monitored for disloyal speech.  The legal authority for these actions flowed from the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918.

D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Start by showing “Extra! Police Take Notice!” (an advertisement for the film The Kaiser, published in the Bridgeport Times and Evening Farmer, April 23, 1918.) Have the class read the advertisement together, identifying:

  1. Facts/things they can know for sure from the source
  2. Inferences/things they can reasonably guess or assume
  3.  Questions they have

Working individually or in groups, have students read some or all of the other three sources. In addition to pulling out facts, inferences, and further questions, students may explore supporting questions such as:

  • What kinds of “speech” were limited during WWI?
  • Why was free speech restricted?
  • What were the possible penalties for those who violated the regulations?
  • Who accused people of “seditious” or anti-American speech?
  • What kinds of people were accused?

Discuss questions that have emerged from the sources and where students could find answers or learn more.

D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS

Students will select a person mentioned in one of the sources (a “concerned citizen,” law enforcement, protestor/accused citizen) and defend his or her position in a debate with classmates on the question of freedom of speech and censorship during World War I.

Students, acting as if they were a resident of Connecticut from 1917 through 1921, will write a letter to the editor of either the Norwich Bulletin or the Bridgeport Evening Farmer/Bridgeport Times in reaction to any of the primary sources provided.

Students will investigate events/topics related to free speech today—especially those involving national security—and write a letter to the editor of a contemporary newspaper placing these events into historical context and presenting lessons that could be drawn from the regulation of speech over time in America.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Places to GO
Things to DO
Websites to VISIT

This TeachITCT.org activity is sponsored in part by the Library of Congress Teaching with Primary Sources Eastern Region Program, coordinated by Waynesburg University.

Grade 5 – Charter Oak: A Symbol of Independence

by Laura Krenicki
William J. Johnston Middle School, Colchester


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Politics & Government
Theme
The Struggle for Freedom, Equality, and Social Justice
Town
Hartford, Statewide
Related Search Terms
Charter Oak, Independence, England, Colonial, Government, Connecticut Colony
Social Studies Frameworks
Grade 5 – Early United States History
D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

How would you protect your freedoms?

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • What is the significance of Connecticut’s contribution to America’s story?
  • How were the beginnings of a national identity created by colonies with very different purposes and varied governmental and economic systems?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

Charles De Wolf Brownell, View of the Charter Oak, Hartford,  oil on canvas - The Wadsworth Atheneum and Connecticut History Illustrated
Charles De Wolf Brownell, View of the Charter Oak, Hartford, oil on canvas – The Wadsworth Atheneum and Connecticut History Illustrated

As a colony of England and English rule, Connecticut originally did not have any rights to govern themselves or even to make local laws. In 1662, King Charles II wrote a charter granting Connecticut the right to elect local leaders and even to create laws. The “Connecticut Charter” became an issue when King Charles II died and his brother, James II became the next king. James II didn’t want the Connecticut colony to have that much autonomy, so in 1667 he sent an ambassador, Sir Edmond Andros, to recall the charter.ConnecticutQuarter

During an interesting turn of events, in which colonist leaders and Andros met to debate the charter, the candles in the room suddenly went out. When order was restored, the charter, which had been on the table between the parties, was missing. It had been hidden in the trunk of a white oak tree so that it would be safe from Andros.

The Charter Oak became a symbol of American independence. Today, the image of the Charter Oak is commemorated on the Connecticut state quarter.

 

D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Write the following question-focus statement on the board:

The legend of the Charter Oak is the story of our independence.

Have students generate questions, in small groups, to reflect on this statement. Narrow the list down to closed questions (ones that have a definite answer) and open questions (inquiry). Have students chose one or two to research.

Have students consider:

  • How might the history of the United States have turned out if the charter had not been taken?
  • Why did James II decide to take the charter back after his brother, Charles II, had issued it to the colonies?
D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS

Have students take the sides of the colonists and the English ambassadors and create a reenactment of the events. What would have been discussed? What would have happened if the ambassadors had taken the charter?

The Connecticut state flag does not contain the Charter Oak. Create a new design for the state flag that would include this iconic image.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Places to GO
Things to DO

Grade 3 – Hartford: Then and Now

Map of Pioneer Hartford produced in 1927

by Laura Krenicki
William J. Johnston Middle School, Colchester


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Environment, Exploration and Discovery
Theme
Influence of Geography on the Social, Political, and Economic Development of CT Towns and the State
Town
Hartford, Statewide
Related Search Terms
Colonial, Hartford, Map, Pequot, Pioneer, Geography, Local History
Social Studies Frameworks
Grade 3 – Connecticut & Local History
D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

In what ways has Hartford, Connecticut, changed and/or stayed the same over time? 

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • How were local landmarks and neighborhoods named?
  • Why were specific individuals in your community honored through monuments or memorials, and how did they affect the history of your town, state, and country?
  • What historical events occurred in your town/city?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson (click on map for larger image).

The Map of Pioneer Hartford: Founded 1636, Incorporated 1784, Showing Early Landmarks and the Locations of Historical Events, ca. 1927 by James and Ruth Goldie - Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division
“The Map of Pioneer Hartford: Founded 1636, Incorporated 1784, Showing Early Landmarks and the Locations of Historical Events”, ca. 1927 by James and Ruth Goldie – Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division

The Map of Pioneer Hartford

Hartford, named after the English town of Hertford, was established in 1636. Though Rev. Thomas Hooker is credited with starting the English colony, there was already a Dutch settlement and Native American settlements in the same region. In fact, the state name Connecticut originates from the Mohegan word quonehtacut, meaning “place of long tidal river,” which runs alongside Hartford. This colonial map of Hartford shows how different cartographers (map makers) view space and place. Here, you’ll notice there are few streets, but there are landmarks and family names.

"Hartford Settlement, 1636" map created from two separate maps, originally published in The Colonial History of Hartford by Rev. William DeLoss Love, 1811, on the website Kenyon Street: Hartford's West End.
“Hartford Settlement, 1636” map created from two separate maps, originally published in The Colonial History of Hartford by Rev. William DeLoss Love, 1811, on the website Kenyon Street: Hartford’s West End.

Hartford Settlement, 1636

There are several Native American references on the map. Can your students spot them all? Several groups of Native Peoples lived in the Hartford area, and they have a strong cultural heritage in our state (For more info: Pequot Museum). In fact, many Native Peoples died when Europeans settled in the area because of exposure to new diseases. Using the CDC.gov website, have students find areas of the world requiring immunizations for travelers. Why are immunizations important?

University of Connecticut's, Map and Geographic Information Center - Hartford, CT Historical Places Map Mash-up
University of Connecticut’s, Map and Geographic Information Center – Hartford, CT: Historical Places Map Mash-up

Mash-up map

Over time, more maps were made of Hartford and more details were added as the community grew larger. In the upper left corner of the map is a drop-down menu. Choose one of the maps in the drop-down menu to compare to the map listed above. What questions do you have about the two maps? For more information, you may wish to check out this website: Map of the Week! #3 Hartford in 1640 and 1893

D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Have students notice how the map is oriented.

  • Which way is north?
  • How can they tell?
  • Which way does the Connecticut River flow?

The founding of Hartford was dependent on the Connecticut River.

  • Why was the river so important then?
  • How is it important to Hartford now?

For further consideration:

  • How important is scale on a map?
  • If they were to use this Pioneer Map of Hartford, how close would things seem?
  • How might this be misleading if students were going to walk from Soldier’s Field to West Field?
  • How did these places get their names?
D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS

Have students create a personal map from their house to your school. Have students ask their families to see how their community has changed over time.

As a class discussion, consider these questions:

  • What things would you think are important to include in your map?
  • What details or landmarks would you include in your map and what would you leave off?
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Places to GO
Things to DO
Websites to VISIT
Articles to READ