Grade 5 – Mapping the New World: Dutch Maps of the Colonies


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Environment, Exploration and Discovery, Native Americans
Theme
The Impact of Geography on History
Town
Guilford, Hartford, Watertown, Statewide
Related Search Terms
Colonist, Colonization, Colony, Explorers, Geography, Natural Resources, Indigenous People, Dutch, Map
Social Studies Frameworks
Grade 5 – Early United States History

Historical Background
In 1614 Dutch explorer Adriaen Block sailed along the Connecticut coast and up the Versche (Fresh) River—the Dutch name for the Connecticut River—as far as what is now Hartford. In 1633 the Dutch established a fortified trading post there. It was called the Huys de Hope—the House of Hope. For decades there was conflict between the Dutch in New Netherland and the English who came to settle in the same area. In 1650, the Dutch finally gave up their lands in Connecticut to the English.

D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

How did the physical geography of New England affect how the colonies developed? 

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • What resources were available in the different colonies and how were those resources used?
  • How did the colonists’ use of natural resources and establishment of permanent settlements affect the indigenous people of the region?
  • Why were the New England colonies focused on trade?
  • In what ways, and for whom, was America a land of opportunity during the 1600s?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

Willem Blaeu (Dutch), Nova Belgica et Anglia Nova, 1635 - This map is held in the collections of the Connecticut Historical Society and the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library
Willem Blaeu (Dutch), Nova Belgica et Anglia Nova, 1635 – This map is held in the collections of the Connecticut Historical Society and the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library

This map was based on a map drawn by Adriaen Block. It is oriented with west at the top. The map shows “Nieu Pleimouth” (Plymouth) and the Noord (North) Rivier (today called the Hudson), as well as the Versche (Fresh) River. It also includes images of native animals (probably never seen in real life by the artist), examples of Native American canoes and fortified villages, and European-style sailing ships.

Novi Belgii Novæque Angliæ
Nicolaes Visscher (Dutch), Novi Belgii Novæque Angliæ, 1685 – Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division

This later map features some of the same pictures and details as Blaeu’s map. It also includes the Fort de Goede Hoop (another name for the House of Hope) and some English settlements, such as Herfort (Hartford), Gilfort (Guilford), and Watertuyn (Watertown).

D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Using the Library of Congress’s Primary Source Analysis process, give students time to examine the first of the two maps, and ask them to OBSERVE, REFLECT, and QUESTION.

  1. Observe: Describe what you see. What do you notice first? What information does the map provide? What geographic elements are included? Which way is north/south/east/west, and how do you know? What places are shown on the map? Are there words on the map? Pictures? What are they?
  2. Reflect: Why do you think this map was made? What do you think was important to the people who made this map? Does the map give us any clues about the time in which it was made?
  3. Question: What does this map make you wonder?

Repeat with the later map and have students compare and contrast.

You may then choose to address some of the supporting questions (above) or focus on the questions that students have developed as part of their inquiry.

D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS
  1. Using evidence from the historic maps, as well as additional information gathered through readings and classroom discussions, students will make their own map of Connecticut showing the natural resources that attracted European colonists to the area. Start with a blank outline map like this one. Have students draw in major rivers and hilly regions, and then add simple images for fish/shellfish, woods/timber, beavers (for fur), other native animals, farmland, etc. in appropriate areas of the map.
  2. Using evidence from the historic maps, as well as additional information gathered through readings and classroom discussions, students will imagine that they are sailors on Adriaen Block’s ship, the Onrust, during its exploration of the Connecticut coast and the Fresh (Connecticut) River. They will write fictionalized letters home to a loved one in Amsterdam describing their experiences and observations.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Places to GO
Things to DO
Websites to VISIT
Articles to READ

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Grade 3 – Exploring Communities: Using Historic Maps to Learn about the Past


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Architecture, Environment, The State
Theme
Using Evidence to Learn About the Past
Town
Bridgeport, Canton, Danbury, East Haddam, Hartford, Killingly, Madison, New Haven, New London, NorwichThomaston, Vernon, Statewide
Related Search Terms
Map, Geography, Communities, Local History, Architecture, Landmarks, Insurance
Social Studies Frameworks
Grade 3 – Connecticut & Local History
D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

Why do our communities look the way they do today?

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS

In what ways has our community’s past shaped how it looks today?

How has geography affected our community over time?

How have science, technology, and innovation affected communities?

D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

An example of a Sanborn map titled Insurance maps of Danbury, Fairfield County, Connecticut by the Sanborn Map Company, 1904 -
An example of a Sanborn map titled Insurance maps of Danbury, Fairfield County, Connecticut by the Sanborn Map Company, 1904 – Yale University, Sterling Memorial Library, Connecticut Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps

Use the Yale University Library website–Connecticut Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps— to select and download a Sanborn fire insurance map to fit your teaching goals (you can look at the maps in your browser, but downloading the high-quality PDFs will enable students to make out more details).

You may choose just one map from your town or a nearby town, if you wish to focus on your own community, or select a few maps to show different types of environments—large cities, medium-sized towns, or smaller towns—if your focus is on urban, suburban, and rural communities. Note that many (but not all) Connecticut towns are represented in Sanborn maps. Here are a few samples from around the state:

Sanborn fire insurance maps were first published in 1867 to show how great a risk of fire there was in any town or city. The maps include all of the buildings in town, colored-coded to show what materials were used to build them (mostly “frame”/wood, brick, or stone). The maps also include important public buildings (government buildings, theaters, churches, schools, etc.), street names, and additional information. For larger cities, the maps take up several pages, like an atlas. For some communities, they are the most detailed maps available from the late 1800s to early 1900s. They are a great source of information about the past for historians–young and old!

D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Using the Library of Congress’s Primary Source Analysis process, give students time to examine each of the maps you have selected, and ask them to OBSERVE, REFLECT, and QUESTION. For larger towns, you may want to start with the “title page” and then also look at a downtown detail page and one from farther outside the city center.

  1.  Observe: What do you notice first? What information does the map provide? What geographic elements are included? Which way is north/south/east/west and how do you know? Are there words on the map?
  2. Reflect: What do you think was important to the people who made this map? Does the map give us any clues about the time in which it was made? If you are familiar with this town today, what is the same and what is different? Or how is the town shown in this map similar to or different from your own?
  3. Question: What does this map make you wonder?
D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS
  1. Imagining they are cartographers/map-makers, students will think about their own town and develop a list of all of the special places (public buildings, landmarks, public spaces, etc.) that should be included in a new map of town.
  2. Students will try their hand at making a map using rulers and graph paper. Making a map of the classroom is an easy project to start with; if your room has floor tiles, students can use those to mark out the dimensions on the graph paper.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Places to GO
Things to DO
Articles & Books to READ

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Grade 3 – Economic Development: Saugatuck’s Development Over Time

by Lauren Francese
Westport Public Schools, Westport


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Arts, Business & Industry, Transportation
Theme
Influence of Geography on the Social, Political, and Economic Development of CT Towns and the State
Town
Westport, Statewide
Related Search Terms
Westport, Progress, Transportation, Art, Lambdin
Social Studies Frameworks
Grade 3 – Connecticut & Local History
D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

In what ways has one town, and Connecticut, changed and/or stayed the same over time?

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • In what ways have bodies of water shaped the development of Connecticut over time?
  • What has motivated innovations in transportation throughout Connecticut’s history?
  • How does an artist tell a story?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

Saugatuck in the 19th Century by Robert Lambdin - Westport Public Schools
Saugatuck in the 19th Century by Robert Lambdin – Westport Public Schools

This painting is titled, “Saugatuck in the 19th Century.” It depicts Saugatuck as part of Connecticut river commerce and manufacturing. The artist, Robert Lambdin, was a Westport resident who created the mural for the Westport Bank & Trust Company’s Saugatuck branch when it opened in 1970.

It shows the various types of transportation and methods of trade that developed throughout the 19th century. A few of the landmarks in the painting are still standing today, including the original firehouse and the swing bridge and train depot.

While the painting emphasizes the 19th century, the artist included I-95, which was a 20th-century development. However, the framing of the mural with the I-95 overpass creates an interesting dynamic within the mural as a way to think about economic progress.MuralLegendPicture

-Legend for Mural copy

This is a legend for the mural to show the locations represented.

D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Introduce the painting and ask students to SEE, THINK, WONDER.

  • What do they SEE in the mural?
  • What does this mural make them THINK about?
  • What does this mural make them WONDER?

SEE: Make observations about the mural.
THINK: Make connections using background knowledge.
WONDER: Ask questions about the mural.

Introduce “economics” and vocabulary terms: buyers, sellers, and trade.
WHO TRADES? (nearly everyone)
PEOPLE TRADE BECAUSE… (people trade because they expect to gain)
PEOPLE MAKE CHOICES ABOUT TRADING BASED ON… (what they want, want more, or don’t want at all)

What questions from the list of things you wondered might help us to explore the economic activity/trade in the mural? (Students can work here to identify and prioritize questions)

Who is trading in the mural? What is being traded? What different types of transportation are people using to trade?

What questions would they ask the artist to better understand the mural? How might we find clues or helpful information to learn more about the message within this mural?


 

Research the Art! What time periods are reflected in the painting? Assign students to research the following modes of transportation or industries that are represented in the painting (inquiry circles may be used here too). Have students place these innovations on a timeline in the classroom.

  • Sailing Vessel
  • Steamboat
  • Railroad
  • Horse and carriage
  • Highways
  • Bank
  • Button Making
  • Saugatuck Manufacturing
  • Doscher Plane Company
  • Wakeman Mattress and Cushion Company
D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS

In groups, have students create a new title for the painting and explain their rationale for the title. Then, ask students to add to the timeline of transportation (what comes next?) and make predictions about how they would change the painting to reflect their ideas about the future.

  • Why did they choose this title?
  • Why is this painting important for understanding how Westport and other Connecticut communities changed over time?
  • How will the changes they predict for the future of transportation shape the way people live in Westport and other Connecticut communities?

 

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Things to DO
Websites to VISIT
Articles to READ

Grade 3 – Kids at Sea in the 19th Century

by Laura Krenicki
William J. Johnston Middle School, Colchester


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Transportation, Exploration & Discovery
Theme
Influence of Geography on the Social, Political, and Economic Development of CT Towns and the State
Town
Mystic, a village in the towns of Groton and Stonington, Statewide
Related Search Terms
19th Century, Life at Sea, Maud Maxon, Letter, Education, Ship, Primary Source, Everyday Life
Social Studies Frameworks
Grade 3 – Connecticut & Local History
D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

How did maritime culture influence the people of Connecticut?

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • How was life in the 1870s similar or different to life in Connecticut now?
  • How has transportation improved since 1870?
  • What would it have been like for children at sea?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

Maud Maxon was a little girl in Mystic, Connecticut, who went on a ship voyage with her uncle. Her mother did not go on the trip, so the letter tells her mother of her days at sea. Page one of letter. - Mystic Seaport
Maud Maxon was a little girl in Mystic, Connecticut, who went on a ship voyage with her uncle. Her mother did not go on the trip, so the letter tells her mother of her days at sea. Page one of letter. – Mystic Seaport
Page 2 of letter. - Mystic Seaport
Page 2 of letter. There are more pages available on the Mystic Seaport link. – Mystic Seaport
Page 3 of letter. - Mystic Seaport
Page 3 of letter. There are more pages available on the Mystic Seaport link. – Mystic Seaport
D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Divide students into small groups and have them read the first page of the letter (if it is difficult to read, click on the Mystic Seaport link as there is a “transcription” of the text as well as an audio version at the top of the page). Have students write questions about the letter on sticky notes. Continue with the next page and see if any of the questions on the sticky notes were answered. Remove those notes. Add new notes as additional questions are raised, etc.

Explore the questions and see if some are answerable with the letter itself. If not, have students research what life at sea would have been like, and even more so for children. Also consider the routes one would need to take in the 19th century to go from Mystic, Connecticut, to San Francisco, California.

D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS
  • Students may create their own letters as though they were aboard a ship, and use examples/terms from the Artifact Resource Sets found on the Mystic Seaport website. For example: “although it is often very dark in the bunks where we sleep, the DECK LIGHTS set in the upper deck allows for some light to the lower deck.”
  • Create a map of the sea routes one would take to travel from Mystic, Connecticut, to San Francisco, California, in the 19th century. Would there be a faster sea route now?
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Places to GO
Things to DO
Websites to VISIT
Articles to READ

Grade 8 – The Inventions of A. A. Hotchkiss And Sons

by Rosemary Davis
Sharon Historical Society, Sharon


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Business & Industry, Invention & Technology, Civil War
Theme
The Role of Connecticut in U.S. History
Town
Sharon, Statewide
Related Search Terms
Manufacturing, Industrialization, Hardware, Firearms, Munitions, Projectiles
Social Studies Frameworks
Grade 8 – United States History
D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

How did Sharon, Connecticut, manufacturers A. A. Hotchkiss and Sons contribute to major innovations in U.S. history?

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • What inventions patented by the Hotchkiss family were used throughout the United States?
  • What industries existed in Sharon, Connecticut, that made it a good place to manufacturer hardware such as home and farm items?
  • What major war in U.S. history used a Hotchkiss invention and led to the Hotchkiss factory moving out of Sharon, Connecticut? Why was it necessary to leave Sharon?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

Items made in Asahel Hotchkiss' factory east of Mudge Pond brook. Among the included are currycombs, a horse bit, hasp, mowing machine teeth, nails, bolts, nuts and an ox bow pin. How many can you identify? - Sharon Historical Society
Items made in Asahel Hotchkiss’ factory east of Mudge Pond brook. Among the included are currycombs, a horse bit, hasp, mowing machine teeth, nails, bolts, nuts and an ox bow pin. How many can you identify? – Sharon Historical Society
Classic wrench invented by Andrew Hotchkiss.  Patented under # 8922 Andrew's design has served as the prototype for numerous adjustable wrenches - Sharon Historical Society
Classic wrench invented by Andrew Hotchkiss. Patented under # 8922 Andrew’s design has served as the prototype for numerous adjustable wrenches. – Sharon Historical Society
Hotchkiss exploding shells patented by Andrew Hotchkiss.   - Sharon Historical Society
Hotchkiss exploding shells patented by Andrew Hotchkiss. – Sharon Historical Society
D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Students can examine the Hotchkiss inventions in the context of more in-depth questions, such as:

  • Is America a land of political, economic, and social opportunity?
  • What was the significance of Connecticut’s contribution to America’s story?

Students can also use the inventions and the larger story of the Hotchkiss company moving from Sharon to analyze reasons for economic growth in Connecticut in the 19th century and ways that Connecticut contributed to the growth and expansion of the nation. Evaluate the history of individual cities and towns in the 19th century and analyze reasons for economic and/or social change in individual towns during this period.

D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS

Students could engage in a debate about the role of innovation in war time. Students could also create a presentation examining the Hotchkiss inventions from geographical (Why was Sharon a good place for innovation?), social (How did farm and home hardware improve everyday life?), and political (What was the contribution of the Hotchkiss shell to the Civil War?) perspectives.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Things to DO
Websites to VISIT
Articles to READ

Grade 8 – The Iron Industry of Northwest Connecticut

by Rosemary Davis
Sharon Historical Society, Sharon


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Business & Industry, Invention & Technology
Theme
The Impact of Geography on History
Town
Salisbury, Sharon, Statewide
Related Search Terms
Geography, Industrialization, Iron, Furnace, Ore, Pig Iron
Social Studies Frameworks
Grade 8 – United States History
D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

Would there have been a thriving iron industry in Connecticut without the geological and geographical advantages of the northwest corner?

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • Why was the geography of the northwest corner critical to the success of Connecticut’s iron industry?
  • Why did Connecticut’s iron industry fail?
  • What might have happened to the development of the northwest corner of Connecticut had the men that owned the iron furnaces decided to become steel producers?
  • How did the geographical location of Connecticut’s iron industry affect the development of transportation routes into and out of the state?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson.

Men working as molders in Sharon Valley. Note the unusual variety of tools used for the compacting of special sand for casting the iron. Note: the children are not just visiting they are part of the work force. - Sharon Historical Society
Men working as molders in Sharon Valley. Note the unusual variety of tools used for the compacting of special sand for casting the iron. Note: the children are not just visiting they are part of the work force. – Sharon Historical Society
The Sharon Valley Iron Company furnace in 1875. Note the stacks of pig iron in the foreground and beyond the tree to the left. To the upper right stand the charcoal sheds. At the same level is the elongated casting shed running into the main building to the top of the thirty-four-foot-high blast furnace.  Above the unseen furnace is the top house extending sixty-eight feet above ground.  To the far left is the blast house with an overshot waterwheel powering pumping tubs through the visible pipe to the top house to heat the blast. The casting shed, center front, contains the sand beds where the white-hot iron formed into pigs and cooled. - Salisbury Association
The Sharon Valley Iron Company furnace in 1875. Note the stacks of pig iron in the foreground and beyond the tree to the left. To the upper right stand the charcoal sheds. At the same level is the elongated casting shed running into the main building to the top of the thirty-four foot high blast furnace. Above the unseen furnace is the top house extending sixty-eight feet above ground. To the far left is the blast house with an overshot waterwheel powering pumping tubs through the visible pipe to the top house to heat the blast. The casting shed, center front, contains the sand beds where the white-hot iron formed into pigs and cooled. – Salisbury Association
Account Book, Coal, Sharon Valley Iron Co., 1887-1892. - Sharon Historical Society
Account Book, Coal, Sharon Valley Iron Co., 1887-1892. – Sharon Historical Society
D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Using the above primary and secondary source materials, the book, Echoes of Iron in Connecticut’s Northwest Corner, and accompanying video, “Visions of Iron,” students will plot out the geographical locations of materials critical to the success of Connecticut’s iron industry: rivers, forests for the production of charcoal, lime deposits, and iron ore deposits. Once the data has been plotted, students will develop hypotheses as to why the iron industry failed, and what actions could have been taken to foster its long-term success. Using these arguments, students will determine how the character of the northwest corner may have been changed as a result.

D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS
  • Plan a mock town meeting on one of the following topics: the possibility of building more iron furnaces across the region; the conversion of cold blast furnaces to hot blast furnaces; bringing major railroad lines closer to the furnace locations; etc.
  • Using online resources develop an interactive map.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Things to DO
Websites to VISIT
Articles to READ

Grade 3 – Hartford: Then and Now

Map of Pioneer Hartford produced in 1927

by Laura Krenicki
William J. Johnston Middle School, Colchester


TEACHER'S SNAPSHOT
Topic
Environment, Exploration and Discovery
Theme
Influence of Geography on the Social, Political, and Economic Development of CT Towns and the State
Town
Hartford, Statewide
Related Search Terms
Colonial, Hartford, Map, Pequot, Pioneer, Geography, Local History
Social Studies Frameworks
Grade 3 – Connecticut & Local History
D1: POTENTIAL COMPELLING QUESTION

In what ways has Hartford, Connecticut, changed and/or stayed the same over time? 

D1: POTENTIAL SUPPORTING QUESTIONS
  • How were local landmarks and neighborhoods named?
  • Why were specific individuals in your community honored through monuments or memorials, and how did they affect the history of your town, state, and country?
  • What historical events occurred in your town/city?
D2: TOOL KIT

Things you will need to teach this lesson (click on map for larger image).

The Map of Pioneer Hartford: Founded 1636, Incorporated 1784, Showing Early Landmarks and the Locations of Historical Events, ca. 1927 by James and Ruth Goldie - Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division
“The Map of Pioneer Hartford: Founded 1636, Incorporated 1784, Showing Early Landmarks and the Locations of Historical Events”, ca. 1927 by James and Ruth Goldie – Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division

The Map of Pioneer Hartford

Hartford, named after the English town of Hertford, was established in 1636. Though Rev. Thomas Hooker is credited with starting the English colony, there was already a Dutch settlement and Native American settlements in the same region. In fact, the state name Connecticut originates from the Mohegan word quonehtacut, meaning “place of long tidal river,” which runs alongside Hartford. This colonial map of Hartford shows how different cartographers (map makers) view space and place. Here, you’ll notice there are few streets, but there are landmarks and family names.

"Hartford Settlement, 1636" map created from two separate maps, originally published in The Colonial History of Hartford by Rev. William DeLoss Love, 1811, on the website Kenyon Street: Hartford's West End.
“Hartford Settlement, 1636” map created from two separate maps, originally published in The Colonial History of Hartford by Rev. William DeLoss Love, 1811, on the website Kenyon Street: Hartford’s West End.

Hartford Settlement, 1636

There are several Native American references on the map. Can your students spot them all? Several groups of Native Peoples lived in the Hartford area, and they have a strong cultural heritage in our state (For more info: Pequot Museum). In fact, many Native Peoples died when Europeans settled in the area because of exposure to new diseases. Using the CDC.gov website, have students find areas of the world requiring immunizations for travelers. Why are immunizations important?

University of Connecticut's, Map and Geographic Information Center - Hartford, CT Historical Places Map Mash-up
University of Connecticut’s, Map and Geographic Information Center – Hartford, CT: Historical Places Map Mash-up

Mash-up map

Over time, more maps were made of Hartford and more details were added as the community grew larger. In the upper left corner of the map is a drop-down menu. Choose one of the maps in the drop-down menu to compare to the map listed above. What questions do you have about the two maps? For more information, you may wish to check out this website: Map of the Week! #3 Hartford in 1640 and 1893

D3: INQUIRY ACTIVITY

Have students notice how the map is oriented.

  • Which way is north?
  • How can they tell?
  • Which way does the Connecticut River flow?

The founding of Hartford was dependent on the Connecticut River.

  • Why was the river so important then?
  • How is it important to Hartford now?

For further consideration:

  • How important is scale on a map?
  • If they were to use this Pioneer Map of Hartford, how close would things seem?
  • How might this be misleading if students were going to walk from Soldier’s Field to West Field?
  • How did these places get their names?
D4: COMMUNICATING CONCLUSIONS

Have students create a personal map from their house to your school. Have students ask their families to see how their community has changed over time.

As a class discussion, consider these questions:

  • What things would you think are important to include in your map?
  • What details or landmarks would you include in your map and what would you leave off?
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Places to GO
Things to DO
Websites to VISIT
Articles to READ